Art encompasses a wide range of human activities, creations, and expressions that are a direct reflection of human emotions and experiences. Traditionally, Art Techniques include Music, Painting, Sculptures, and Literature to name some. In addition, if anything is done technically well, owing to innate skills, or learnt by study and practice, it is said to be an art such as cooking, driving, or even grooming. In effect, we can say that Artistry is a sum of Art Techniques employed to bring out the Beauty, Taste, and the Symbolism of an artwork. Art also illustrates abstract thoughts and expressions. Aptly put by Leo Tolstoy, "Art is not a handicraft. It is the transmission of feelings the artist has experienced."
As mentioned above, you need to employ the right Techniques of Art to bring out the complete objective if an artwork. The ensuing discussion explores Arts Techniques in Chronological Order.
Paleolithic Era Arts Techniques were being used since the Paleolithic Era (Stone Age – 40,000 years ago). Several Sculptures, Cave Paintings, Drilled Snail Shells (from S. Africa) were found in excavations. The Technique of Art used during that period were, Carving (mainly on bones & stones) and Paintings (on the walls of caves). The colors used in those days included Blood, Charcoal, Soil, Juices of Flower Petals, and Leaves.
Mesolithic Era In the Mesolithic Period (Middle Stone Age), art forms changed due to environmental developments and people's adaptations to these changes. Poetry was seen, but it was strictly practical than artistic. As Arrowhead was invented, most of the art works were in Carving. Pointed Tools made from Flint, Obsidian, and other Minerals were used. Cave Paintings moved out of Caves to the surfaces of natural Rocks.
Neolithic Era New Art Techniques emerged in this era. These include Weaving, Architecture, and the construction of Megaliths to mention a few.
Middle Age In the Middle Age (480 to 751 AD), Art evolved drastically. These art forms are now gracing various museums such as, Kimbell Art Museum, Russia's Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and Berlin's Museum for Pre and Early History. In the purview of this age, Art can be categorized as Early Christian Art, Migration Period Art, Celtic Art, Byzantine Art, Islamic Art, Pre-Romanesque & Romanesque Art, and Gothic Art. Many of these Art Techniques are lasting until date. The Art Techniques used in this period were:
o Ceramic (use of traditional Clay for Pottery, Bricks, & Tiles)
o Mosaic (creation of Small Images using the small pieces of Colored Glass)
o Pottery (Clay Objects of required shape, heated to give strength. Materials used – Earthenware, Stoneware, & Porcelain)
o Lusterware (a type of Pottery with Metallic Glaze that gives iridescent effect)
o Manuscript (a Handwritten Document, not allowed to reprint)
o Book Binding (a process of assembling the sheets of paper to form a Book)
o Calligraphy (the art of Writing, described as Scripts & Alphabets)
o Illuminated Manuscripts (Mancripts, which include text along with decoration)
o Engraving (incising hard flat surface by cutting grooves into it. Silver, Gold, Glass, Steel & Lacquer surfaces were engraved)
o Metal cut (an Art Technique in Print Making in which an image is embossed on a Metallic Surface)
o Woodcut (an Art Technique in Print Making in which an image is carved on a Wooden Surface)
o Niello (Black Metallic Alloy of Sulfur, Copper, Silver, & Lead, used as an Inlay on Engraved Metal)
§ Jewelry (Personal Ornaments made of precious Metals and Stones)
o Fresco (Painting done on the Plaster of Walls or Ceilings)
o Medieval clothing
o Chaperon (a kind of Hat worn in Western Europe in the Middle Age)
Modern Age Modern Age (751 AD to Present) offers extensive Art Techniques, which include some of the continuing art forms of previous era. The best part is that the present times offer many display options to show up the artwork. Televisions, Magazines, Computers, Radio, Music Players, and many such technology forums have provided a huge platform for the present day artists to show their talent. The Modern Art is a combination of New Age Art and most of the Middle Age Art. The exploration of newer Art Techniques continue to be invented every now and then. Some of the most popular Art Techniques of Modern Age include but are not limited to Animation, Printing Techniques, New Age Architects, Performance Art, Video Art, Multi-Media Art, Photography, and Abstract Art, to name just some.